Glossary of Foreskin Restoration Terms
In discussing restoration we use terminology that may be unfamiliar
to newcomers. Even among those who have been restoring for some time,
there can be confusion over a few common terms. This glossary is intended
to clarify the meanings of commonly used words and phrases
related to circumcision and foreskin restoration.
Please note that although circumcision and foreskin restoration involve
issues of physical health and well-being, nothing appearing on
this website is intended to be medical advice. If you want
medical advice or have a medical problem, contact a doctor.
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Brothers United for Future Foreskins, an organization formed in 1982 dedicated
to sharing information about foreskin restoration. Instructions on techniques
published and circulated by the group were known as
the BUFF method,
and detailed various uses of tape for restoring.
To cut off the some of all of the foreskin (orig. from Latin circumcidere,
"to cut around"). The definition of circumcising can range in severity from cutting a
small amount of foreskin at the end of the penis, to removing the skin covering the
glans, to removing so much that the remaining skin is stretched tightly on the penile
shaft. Historically done as a ritual with no practical reason given, though excuses
in order to desensitize the penis and diminish the intensity of sexual pleasure, it
is done today largely out of ignorance of the scope of damage to adult sexuality.
The act of circumcising. An unnecessary (and often crudely performed) cosmetic surgery,
any practical reason for the invention of circumcision has been lost to history.
Historically done as a rite in some cultures, circumcision somehow came into practice by
doctors in the 19th century, and spread throughout much of the English speaking world.
All sorts of excuses are made to justify it, but there is almost never a
medically indicated reason for circumcision.
Circumcision permanently alters the normal form and size of the penis,
desensitizes it, and results in the loss of full sexual function as
an adult. It sometimes causes painful tightness of the remainder shaft
skin, infections of the meatus, and possible penis curvature and other
iatrogenic deformities of the glans and shaft. Circumcision permanently
diminishes the range of sexual potential and pleasure, and may be a
major cause of impotence. If performed during infancy, the trauma of
extreme pain can interrupt mother-infant bonding and permanently alter
the way the infant's brain functions and tolerates pain.
- Circumcision Scar (scar line)
The circumferential scar on the penis that indicates where the scalpel,
clamp, or other cutting or crushing device cut off the foreskin. It may
be a thin line or a wide band, with or without scar tissue, and may differ
in pigmentation and/or texture from the surrounding shaft skin. The striking
difference between inner and outer foreskin coloration is usually more
noticeable than the actual circumcision scar.
Its location can be determined visually by the difference in color on
either side of the scar or manually by running the tip of a finger very
lightly down the erect penis - there is a stark difference where the
sexually sensitive remainder of the inner fold of the foreskin meets
the outer less sensitive skin on the shaft of the penis. It may also be
the site of painful surgical scar neuromas.
The prominent flared ridge at the back of the glans. If the natural
covering of the foreskin is absent, this structure becomes a
dysfunctional one-way valve during intercourse. Without the natural
ability to glide within the foreskin, the corona scrapes natural
lubricants into the open air where they evaporate, causing dryness
and discomfort, and necessitating the use of artificial lubricants.
- Cowper's Glands
Two small glands lying on either side of the male urethra below the
prostate. These glands secrete pre-ejaculate fluid (known as Cowper's
fluid, or informally as "pre-cum") which neutralizes the acidity within
the urethra itself and lubricates the space between the prepuce and glans.
The amount of fluid varies greatly from individual to individual, ranging
from none at all to a continuous flow.
- Cyclic Tension
A type of non-surgical foreskin restoration whereby periods of weight
or tension are alternated with periods of rest.
- Dartos Fascia
The thin layer of smooth muscle (also known as the tunica dartos) that
lies just under the skin of the penis and scrotum. It is sensitive to temperature
and light touch. This muscle, in combination with the ridged
band, is what holds the foreskin over the glans.
Further or furthest from the center (of the body); opposed to proximal.
The upper surface of a body, limb, or object; opposed to ventral. When
discussing the penis, it refers to the top of the penis as seen from a
standing position looking down.
The outer layer of the skin system
A tongue-in-cheek descriptive term for the end result of non-surgical
foreskin restoration. Coined by Santa Cruz artist and Intactivist Rio
Cruz, and used by many tuggers in recognition of the fact that a restored
foreskin appears and functions almost identically to a natural foreskin.
("Faux," pronounced "fo," is a French word meaning "false.")
Soft; the completely non-erect resting state of the penis.
- Foreskin (prepuce)
The dynamic forefold of the skin system of the intact human penis. A
unique, retractable, cylindrical, double layered, flexible sheath of
loose and movable skin that covers the glans.
Normally fused to the glans at birth by a shared membrane sometimes
called the synechia, the foreskin separates from the glans over time as
the membrane dissolves. The foreskin protects the delicate internal
portions of the penis (the glans, sulcus, and mucous membranes) against
abrasion, extremes of temperature, and infections. Unlike the foreskin,
the glans does not contain any immunological, moisturizing or
lubricating capabilities of its own. These are all provided to the
glans by the foreskin when in its forward position.
The foreskin contains thousands of fine touch receptors and erotogenic
nerve endings, including the most sensitive part of the penis - the
densely innervated frenar band. During intercourse it is responsible
for the rolling massage action called "gliding," a self-stimulating
mechanism whereby the frenar band ridges roll back and forth across the
corona while providing an air-tight seal to prevent natural lubricants
The foreskin is the consumate physical achievement of male human sexual
evolution. It is partially to completely lost to amputation by circumcision.
- Frenar band
- see Ridged band
- Frenulum (frenum)
An elastic "V" shaped web of highly sensitive anchoring tissue on the ventral
side of the glans that connects to the ridged band of the prepuce, and helps to
contract the prepuce over the glans.
- Glans (glans penis)
The bulbous organ at the distal end of the penis, sometimes called the "head"
or "crown" of the penis. It is a conical expansion of the corpus spongiosum,
a type of tissue within the penis that fills with blood during erection. The ridge
at its base is known as the corona, and contains Meissners corpuscles in addition
to the free nerve endings on the surface of the glans. Normally an internal organ
in intact men, the glans dries out and can form callouses (see
keratinization) when exposed to air and friction
- Gliding Mechanism
A unique human mechanism of sexual intercourse wherein the loose foreskin
glides up and down the penis. This stimulates the corona and the sensitive
erogenous receptors of the inner foreskin while simultaneously creating an
air-tight seal against evaporation of natural lubricants. It contributes
greatly to the comfort and sexual pleasure of intact men and their partners.
- Inner Foreskin
Term often used by restorers to describe the inner lining of the foreskin. It is not
skin by the biological definition, but rather mucous membrane tissue (also known as
"smooth mucosa". It can range from pink to red in color.
Unaltered, undiminished, uncut, uninjured, or unmutilated. This term is used to
describe the penis or foreskin in its natural state, and also sometimes men who
have not been circumcised.
- Invaginate (invagination)
1. To enfold, ensheath, or insert one portion of an anatomical structure
within another portion of that structure or another structure. 2. To insert
or receive, as into a sheath. 3. To fold or draw back into itself. 4. Sheathed.
5. To become invaginated.
The virgin (intact, undesquamated, unresolved, unretractable) foreskin, because
it is temporarily immobile is not capable of invagination, although it does have
the potential to become so. A circumcised penis is permanently incapable of
invagination. Only a naturally matured (intact, fully desquamated, resolved, and
retractable) penis is capable of invagination. See gliding mechanism.
The process by which skin cells become the rigid, as they move to the surface of
the epidermis (outer layer of skin), where they are eventually sloughed off. The
glans and other naturally moist skin surfaces typically have fewer layers of
keratinized cells, due to moisture washing away what lies at the surface. When the
glans is exposed after circumcision, it dries out and more skin is allowed to build
up on top of it. People sometimes refer to this as keratinization of the glans, a
process that continutes throughout a man's lifetime.
Over time, keratinization buries the few remaining fine touch sensors and other
sexually responsive nerve endings under layers of hard cells. This process further
desensitizes the penis, diminishes the range of sexual pleasure, and may even
contribute to impotence.
- Meatus (urinary meatus)
The opening of the urethra at the end of the glans through which urine, semen,
and natural lubricants flow.
- Mucous membrane (also Mucosa or Mucosal tissue)
Tissue that comprises the lining of various body organs, including those exposed to
the external environment. Mucous membrane is thinner and less keratinized than
normal skin, and allows absorption or secretion of various substances across it.
On the penis, the glans and inner foreskin are covered in mucous membrane, which
is continuous with the outer foreskin.
National Organization of Restoring Men, a non-profit support group for men who have
concerns about being circumcised, are considering foreskin restoration, or are in
the process of restoring their foreskins. It was originally founded in San Francisco
in 1989, at first using the name RECAP, which stood for RECover A Penis. NORM Southern
California is a part of this organization.
- Outer foreskin
A continuation of the shaft skin of the penis, covering the
glans and sometimes extending past it.
Any portion of the foreskin that extends beyond the tip of the glans. This
natural variation in foreskin length is sometimes perjoratively called
"redundant prepuce," as the skin is doubled over on itself.
Literally, "the condition of muzzling." Also called "preputial stenosis." It
refers to a natural narrowness of the preputial sphincter which prevents the
foreskin from being drawn back over the glans. This is often a normal human
anatomical variation and it seldom persists beyond puberty. If desired, the
orifice can be gradually enlarged by gentle stretching and/or application of
a prescribed cream to allow the foreskin to fully retract. A phimotic foreskin
should never be fully retracted by force for any reason.
A natural condition of phimosis (known as "physiological") is often incorrectly
seen as an indication for circumcision. Phimosis can also be pathological,
sometimes caused by scarring on the inner foreskin (possibly from forced
retraction or harsh cleaning).
The fold of skin covering the glans. For the male prepuce, see Foreskin)
- Nearer or nearest to the center (of the body); opposed to distal.
- Raphe (raphe median; medial raphe)
Pronounced "RAY-fee." The narrow ridge or seam running the length of the
ventral side of the penis from the frenulum to the scrotum, then around the
scrotum and across the perineum to the anus. Usually lighter or darker
colored than the skin on either side.
- Restoration, Non-surgical
To re-cover the glans by stretching and expanding the remaining shaft skin and
inner foreskin by use of tension, weights, and/or various taping methods. The
process takes several months or years to accomplish, depending on how much skin
is to be grown. The majority of materials needed for non-surgical restoration
are readily available at drug stores.
Non-surgical foreskin restoration has been successfully done by thousands.
Men who have completed the restoration process subsequently report a renewed
interest in sex, remarkable increases in sensitivity, profoundly greater interest
in the journey of intercourse, orgasms that are much more intense, and an
awareness of nuance and shading in sexuality that was never known before.
Some also experience anger and grief over having been denied these aspects of
their sex lives simply because they were circumcised.
- Restoration, Surgical
To re-cover the glans with skin surgically grafted from another location on
the body. Modern methods typically use skin from the scrotum. It is rarely
done, very expensive, and has the usual risks associated with surgery and
anesthetic. Full recovery takes about three months.
- Ridged band
A highly innervated and complex zone of about twenty concentric,
circumferential, elastic soft ridges near the tip of the foreskin. It is located
between the inner and outer foreskin, connected to the shaft by a frenulum (and
is also known as the Frenar Band). This band carries specialized pleasure producing
nerve endings back and forth across the corona of the glans, and helps contract the
tip of the foreskin to allow it to remain positioned over the glans. Richly endowed
with specialized erotogenic nerves including a concentration of Meissner's corpuscles,
it is the most sensitive part of the intact penis.
- Scar Line
- See Circumcision scar
- Shaft skin
A part of the penile sheath that covers the shaft from the pubic area up to
the foreskin or circumcision scar. During non-surgical restoration, stretching
this sheath along with remnants of the inner foreskin stimulates the production
of additional skin cells, which creates the new foreskin.
- Skin Bridge
- A complication of circumcision in which the inner skin fuses to the mucous membrane
of the glans, usually at the corona. Depending on the size of a skin bridge, it may or
may not cause difficulty while restoring.
A beneficial mixture of scales of sloughed epithelial skin cells mixed with sebum
and transudated moisture from the inner foreskin. Smegma is known to have
bacteriostatic, antiviral, and pheromonal properties. It is a harmless,
protective, lubricating substance that should be gently removed only by rinsing
with clean water to avoid irritation of the mucosa and upsetting the natural
The groove or furrow encircling the penis between the flare of the corona of
the glans and the smooth shaft of the penis. Also referred to as the "coronal
- Tissue Expansion
The biological mechanism which makes non-surgical foreskin restoration possible.
When the cells of the shaft skin are put under tension, they first stretch and
then gradually begin to divide. The addition of new cells is the process by
which the shaft skin tissue expands and grows.
1.Colloquial nickname for men who are restoring their foreskins non-surgically.
2. Devices used to hold the skin forward, or "tug" at it
UNCircumcising Information and Recources Centers, a group formed by Jim Bigelow in
1991. In June 1994, this organization was incorporated under NORM.
Term commonly substituted for the correct description of the normal condition
of the penis: intact. Obviously pejorative if compared to analogous terms such
as "unmastectomized," "unappendectomized," and "unclitoridectomized." Also used
somewhat tongue-in-cheek but descriptively by restoring men in reference to a
circumcised penis that has undergone foreskin restoration. (See "The Joy of
Uncircumcising" by Jim Bigelow.)
The tube running the length of the penis through which urine, semen, and lubricants
The lower surface of a body, limb, or object; opposed to dorsal. When discussing
the penis, it refers to the side of the penis touching the scrotum when completely flaccid.